How To

How to Color Eyes

To color eyes, choose your medium and use multiple shades for realism. Apply the base color first, then add highlights and shadows.

Coloring eyes can bring a drawing or painting to life, adding depth and expression to a subject. Beginners and seasoned artists alike may seek tips for achieving realistic or stylized results. Picking the right tools is essential, whether using colored pencils, paints, or digital software.

Techniques vary, but they often involve layering colors to create dimension. Artists should observe how light interacts with the eye, noting reflections and subtle color variations. With a blend of precision and creativity, coloring eyes can elevate any artistic project. This skill enhances portraits, character designs, and even animated creations, offering a window into the emotion and personality of the depicted figures.

Introduction To Eye Coloring

Eye coloring attracts artists and enthusiasts alike with its complexity and allure. Mastering this skill can bring depth and realism to artistic works. A good understanding of eye anatomy, paired with the right coloring medium, elevates your art. Let’s explore how to breathe life into eyes on canvas or paper.

Choosing The Right Medium

Deciding on a coloring medium is vital. Various options exist, from traditional pencils to digital tools. Each medium offers unique benefits.

  • Colored Pencils: They provide precision and are great for detail.
  • Watercolors: These bring a softness and blendability ideal for realistic effects.
  • Digital Tools: Offer limitless possibilities with undo options and a vast color palette.

Basic Eye Anatomy For Artists

Kids, understanding eye anatomy is super important for coloring eyes. Knowing the parts helps you create realistic eyes. Here’s a simple breakdown.

Part Description
Pupil Dark center that changes size with light.
Iris Colored part with unique patterns for everyone.
Sclera White area around the iris, also known as the white of the eye.
Highlight Reflective spot that makes the eye look shiny and alive.

Selecting Colors

Welcome to the vibrant stage of eye coloring, where shades and hues unlock the magic in your illustrations. Selecting colors for eyes is more than choosing between blue and brown. It’s about understanding the complexity of eye colors and using a palette to bring characters to life.

Understanding Eye Color Variations

Eyes are not just a single shade. Look closely and you’ll see a spectrum of shades. Here’s how to capture that complexity:

  • Study real eyes to notice subtle color changes
  • Use multiple shades to recreate natural variations
  • Remember the liveliness of light reflecting in eyes

Textures and gradients also play a crucial role. They add depth to your artwork.

The Color Wheel And Eye Shades

A color wheel is an artist’s best friend. It guides you in choosing shades that complement each other. Here is a simple use of the color wheel for eyes:

  1. Identify the primary color of the eye
  2. Look across the wheel for complementary colors for accents
  3. Select analogous colors for a harmonious look

Using the color wheel ensures your colored eyes will have a natural yet striking appearance.

Eye Color Base Shade Highlight
Brown Dark Brown Amber or Honey
Blue True Blue Sky Blue or Aquamarine
Green Forest Green Lime Green or Hazel

Experiment with these combinations to make your characters’ eyes pop!

Pencils Or Paints?

Coloring eyes in artwork adds life to your creation. Whether using pencils or paints, artists face choices. Each tool brings unique benefits and challenges.

Pros And Cons Of Different Tools

Choosing between pencils and paints is crucial.

Tool Pros Cons
Pencils
  • Easy to control
  • Portable
  • Less mess
  • Fine detail
  • Limited blending
  • Can be time-consuming
Paints
  • Vibrant colors
  • Textural possibilities
  • Rapid coverage
  • Requires more setup
  • Harder to control
  • Cleanup needed

Techniques For Blending

Blending creates realistic eye colors. Let’s explore techniques.

  • Pencil layering: Build up color with light strokes.
  • Stumps or tortillons: Smudge pencil for soft gradients.
  • Paint mixing: Combine colors before applying.
  • Wet-on-wet: Merge paints on the canvas directly.

With pencils, use a clean eraser for highlights. Paints allow dabbing with a paper towel.

Sketching The Eye

Sketching the Eye is a fundamental skill in creating compelling portraits or character designs. A well-drawn eye conveys emotion and brings a drawing to life. Mastery of sketching the eye begins with understanding its structure, shape, and symmetry. Follow these simple steps to outline an eye accurately and create a symmetrical pair.

Outlining Shape And Proportions

Every eye starts with a basic outline. To capture the essence of the eye, observe the overall shape first. Is it almond-shaped, round, or slanted? Begin with a light pencil stroke to shape the eye.

  • Start with a horizontal line for the base of the eye.
  • Sketch a gentle arc above it for the upper eyelid.
  • Add a matching arc below for the lower eyelid.
  • Notice the eye’s corners, where the two arcs meet.

Keep proportions in mind. The width of the eye typically measures approximately one eye-width apart from the other. The height is a third of the width.

Tips For Symmetry

Achieving symmetry in the eyes is crucial but can be challenging.

  1. Reference a central line down the face to align the eyes.
  2. Check the angles of the upper and lower lids.
  3. Use horizontal lines across the face to level the eyes.
  4. Ensure the size and shape mirror each other.

Remember practice makes perfect. Keep refining your lines until the eyes look harmonious and balanced. A symmetrical pair of eyes can transform your drawing, giving it a lively and realistic appearance.

Creating Depth And Realism

Bringing a portrait to life hinges on mastering the eyes. Eyes are the soul’s windows and demand depth and realism to truly captivate. This guide dives into the art of creating depth and realism in eye coloring, ensuring captivating results.

Layering Colors

Depth in eyes begins with understanding color layering. Colors should build gradually. Start with lighter shades and proceed to darker tones, allowing the hues to blend seamlessly. This technique gives eyes a multidimensional look. Here’s how to achieve it:

  • Start with base colors: Use light, mid-tone shades to lay the groundwork.
  • Add mid-layers: Introduce varied shades to enrich the base colors.
  • Darken the edges: Apply darker tones around the iris’ perimeter.
  • Highlight: Finish with a touch of brightness in the eye’s reflection points.

Shading Techniques

Shading adds depth and shape, making eyes pop. Different parts of the eye, like the iris and the pupil, need specific shading to look real. Use these steps:

  1. Study light and shadow: Observe how light falls and shadows form on real eyes.
  2. Choose shadow areas: Determine where the darkest parts should be, often opposite the light source.
  3. Blend shades: Use a soft brush or pencil to blend and soften the transitions between light and dark areas.
  4. Refine details: Add fine lines and textures to give depth and authenticity to the eye coloring.

Highlighting The Pupil

Welcome to a captivating segment on how to color eyes, focusing on a critical yet often overlooked aspect – Highlighting the Pupil. With the proper techniques, you can bring a lifelike sparkle and depth to any drawing or painting. Let’s unlock the secrets to making those pupils truly stand out.

Achieving A Lustrous Look

The pupil, though small, plays a huge role in how the eyes capture light and exude emotion. To create a realistic luster, start with pinpointing the light source in your image.

  • Identify the direction from which light hits the eye
  • Add a tiny white dot on the pupil to reflect this light
  • Use a fine-tipped tool for precision

This reflective dot can transform a flat pupil into one that has a glistening appearance.

Contrast With The Iris

Contrasting the pupil against the iris helps in enhancing the eye’s dimension. This technique draws attention directly to the pupil, making it a focal point.

  1. Choose a dark shade for the pupil, darker than the iris
  2. Apply the color steadily, maintaining the iris’s unique color edges
  3. Adjust the darkness around the edges where the pupil meets the iris

This strategy guarantees that the pupil stands out against the iris, contributing to the overall realism of the eye.

Adding Reflections

Did you know adding reflections to eyes makes characters burst with life? A sparkle in the eye draws viewers in, creating a sense of realism and emotion. Let’s learn how to capture that magic in your artwork.

Making Eyes Look Lively

A well-placed reflection turns a flat eye into a window of the soul. Use bright highlights to mimic the wet surface of an eye.

  • Observe real eyes. Notice how light plays and reflects.
  • Use reference photos to study how light reflects in different scenarios.
  • Employ digital tools like airbrushing for a soft reflection or hard brushes for a sharp sparkle.

Placement Of Light Source

Understanding where light comes from is key to believable reflections. It should come from the same direction as the main light source in your image.

Light Source Direction Reflection Placement
From Above Upper part of the eye
From the Side Side closest to the light
From Below Lower part of the eye

Pro tip: Add a tiny dot of white on the pupil for a focused gleam. This mimics the pinpoint of light the real eye catches.

How to Color Eyes

Credit: www.pinterest.com

Iris Patterns

How to Color Eyes: Iris Patterns

The iris of the eye is a beauty, with patterns that are unique to each individual. Capturing its essence requires focus on texture and detail. Artists and designers take great care in replicating these patterns to give life to their work. Here’s how you can achieve realistic iris effects in your coloration projects.

Mimicking Natural Iris Textures

Natural iris textures are complex and varied. They often have a radial design that spreads from the pupil. To mimic these textures:

  • Start with a base color, typically a shade of the person’s eye color.
  • Add radial lines stretching out from the pupil.
  • Blend colors softly to avoid harsh lines.
  • Vary the line thickness for a more dynamic look.

Incorporating Fine Details

Adding fine details brings the iris to life. This includes:

  1. Study real eyes to understand flecks and irregularities.
  2. Use a fine brush or digital tool to add subtle spots.
  3. Contrast the light and dark areas to give depth.

Always remember, light reflection is crucial for realism. Place a small, bright highlight on the iris to simulate the natural gleam of the eye.

Using Digital Software

Using Digital Software to color eyes in artwork opens up endless possibilities for creativity and realism. With the right tools, artists can transform flat, lifeless eyes into shimmering pools of color that seem to leap off the screen. This part of the blog focuses on how to use digital software effectively to achieve stunning eye coloring results.

Popular Programs For Eye Coloring

Selecting the right software is crucial for coloring eyes digitally. Each program offers unique features and tools to help you implement your vision. Let’s explore some top picks:

  • Adobe Photoshop: Known for its extensive features and brushes.
  • Corel Painter: Emphasizes natural media and has excellent blending capabilities.
  • Procreate: A popular choice for iPad users with a user-friendly interface.
  • Clip Studio Paint: Great for manga artists and illustrators, known for its smooth vector lines.

Digital Brushes For Realistic Effects

The key to realistic eye color lies in the brushes you use. With digital brushes, you can mimic various textures and reflections found in natural eyes:

Brush Type Effect Use Case
Soft Round Brush Creates soft gradients Base colors and smooth transitions
Airbrush Soft, diffused application Adding depth and volume
Detail Brush Sharp and precise Creating the intricate details of the iris
Texture Brush Complex textures Simulating eye texture and highlights
How to Color Eyes

Credit: www.deviantart.com

The Impact Of Emotion

The ways we color eyes can speak volumes about the emotions they hold. Artists and designers recognize the powerful effect a subject’s eyes impart on a viewer. Capturing the right emotion through color can turn a simple image into a story on its own.

Capturing Expressions In Eyes

When an artist colors eyes, they don’t just mix pigments. They blend moods and emotions. To capture happiness, bright, warm colors often fill the iris. Sparkling light reflections enhance joy and excitement. For a sorrowful look, cooler hues and muted colors soften the eye’s expression. Shadows may be added to highlight depth and contemplation. Here’s how to effectively bring emotions to life:

  • Observe real emotions: Study how eyes change with feelings.
  • Color selection matters: Choose hues that support the mood.
  • Reflect the light: Vary brightness to match the underlying tone.
  • Shadow play is key: Use shadows to convey complexity.

Influencing Viewer Perception

The right colors can sway how observers feel looking into the eyes of your subject. Vibrant shades might instill energy and liveliness. Meanwhile, deeper tones could evoke introspection or reverence. Consider these points to influence perception effectively:

  1. Use contrast to draw attention to the eyes.
  2. Apply saturation to intensify or diminish impact.
  3. Choose cold or warm palettes to suggest different emotions.
  4. Remember context is crucial; the scene’s colors should complement the eyes.

Coloring Eyes In Watercolor

Painting eyes with watercolor is like capturing the essence of a portrait. The eyes are where emotions shine through. It’s thrilling to bring them to life with paints. Let’s dive into how to color eyes with watercolor, wielding every brush stroke to create a window into the soul.

Mixing And Applying Washes

Start by creating a palette that mimics the eye’s natural hues. Eyes are not one flat color. They have depth, shadows, and reflections. Achieve this by mixing various colors. Pay attention to the light source and how it impacts the eye’s appearance.

  • Light wash for the base: Begin with a light wash to outline the eye. This base acts as a guideline for subsequent layers.
  • Add gradual layers: Build intensity with more washes. Let each layer dry before adding the next one.
  • Define the edges sharply: Eyes have clear boundaries; use a fine-tipped brush for the iris and pupil.

Working With Watercolor Properties

Understanding watercolor’s unique qualities allows for stunning eye paintings. The balance of pigment and water is crucial. Manipulate this balance for different effects within the eye:

Property Tactic Effect
Transparency Layer thin glazes Depth and realism
Fluidity Control water amount Smooth color transitions
Blendability Mix colors on paper Natural gradients

Create highlights by leaving parts of the paper white. Use a dry brush for details like eyelashes. Mastering watercolor’s behavior will bring the eyes to life with dimension and expression.

Eye Coloring In Portraiture

Artists often say that the eyes are the window to the soul. In portrait painting, getting the eye color right is crucial. It breathes life into the artwork. The right hue and shade can make a portrait lifelike and vibrant. Below, we discuss tips to perfectly match skin tone and enhance facial features through eye coloring.

Matching Skin Tone And Eye Color

When painting a portrait, the skin tone and eye color should complement each other. This harmony is key. Here are steps to achieve a natural look:

  • Study the subject’s skin under different lighting conditions. Notice how light affects their skin tone.
  • Choose a base color for the eye that matches the warmth or coolness of the skin.
  • Mix colors carefully. Even a slight change can impact the overall look.

Remember, the whites of the eyes should not be pure white. A touch of blue or yellow can make them more realistic.

Enhancing Facial Features

Detailed eyes can bring a portrait to life. Use these strategies for enhancement:

  1. Add highlights to the iris to make the eyes sparkle.
  2. Use shadows to create depth. This makes the eyes look real and expressive.
  3. Consider the light source. It defines where highlights and shadows fall.

These techniques help create eyes that are expressive and captivating.

Advanced Techniques

The journey through the color spectrum takes a daring turn with advanced techniques to color eyes. Mastery in this complex art requires a deep understanding of both light and unconventional color palettes. Discover how pushing the boundaries with inventive methods will take eye illustrations to awe-inspiring heights.

Playing With Light Effects

Lighting dramatically impacts eye color. Manipulating light sources opens a world of possibilities:

  • Highlighting: Apply a bright spot to resemble a light reflection.
  • Shadowing: Darken areas away from the light for depth.
  • Glare: Add a soft glow around the iris for a lifelike effect.

Experiment with different angles to mimic natural and artificial light. A touch of white or yellow can simulate sunlight while blues and purples suggest a cooler tone such as moonlight.

Experimenting With Abstract Colors

Traditional eye colors have their allure, but abstract colors make a bold statement. Here’s how to break free from the norm:

  1. Choose unconventional shades like teal or magenta for the iris.
  2. Create gradients inside the iris to blend hues seamlessly.
  3. Incorporate patterns such as stars or geometric shapes for a fantastical touch.

Sprinkle flecks of contrasting colors within the iris to add complexity and intrigue. This method transforms eyes into mesmerizing kaleidoscopes of color that captivate and tell stories.

Creating Eye Contact

Creating eye contact in artworks transforms flat images into soulful interactions. It invites viewers into a silent conversation with the subject. This section explores the intricate art of coloring eyes, a critical element for capturing the essence of these windows to the soul.

Directing Viewer’s Attention

The eyes are often the first thing we notice. Artists can direct the viewer’s focus with the right use of color and shading. Here’s how:

  • Choose high contrast colors for the iris to make eyes pop.
  • Apply lighter highlights to reflect light and create depth.
  • Use shadows to shape the eye, guiding the viewer’s gaze inward.

Consider the mood you wish to convey. Calm scenes may call for softer, cooler colors, while intense scenes can come alive with warm, vivid hues.

The Power Of Gaze

The direction a subject’s gaze can dramatically alter the artwork’s narrative. Effective gaze techniques include:

Gaze Direction Emotional Impact
Direct Eye Contact Engages and confronts the viewer.
Looking Aside Introduces mystery, contemplation.
Glancing Upward Suggests optimism, aspiration.

Channel the power of gaze by adjusting the pupil and highlight placement. Experiment with different angles to perfect the intended look and feel.

Eyelashes And Eyebrows

Eyelashes and Eyebrows play a key role in drawing colorful and expressive eyes. These features add depth and emotion to the face. A guide to coloring these tiny details can transform a drawing from good to great.

Drawing Realistic Hair Textures

Creating realistic hair textures in eyelashes and eyebrows is crucial. It’s not just about a solid block of color. Using fine lines and varying shades can mimic natural hair. It’s best to observe real human features for reference.

  • Use fine, sharp pencils or brushes for hair-like strokes.
  • Layer different tones from light to dark to build depth.
  • Start with light pressure, then increase for darker hairs.
  • Stroke in the hair’s natural growth direction.
  • Keep highlights, especially where light naturally hits the brows.

Balancing With Eye Color

The balance between eye color and hair color is important. Choose complementary shades for eyelashes and eyebrows. This will bring out the eyes’ natural hues.

For brown eyes, warmer tones add richness. Blue eyes shine with cooler, ashy shades. Green eyes stand out with reddish or warm brown colors.

Eye Color Eyelash Color Eyebrow Color
Brown Deep Brown or Soft Black Warm Brown or Taupe
Blue Gray or Charcoal Soft Brown or Ashy Hues
Green Brown with Red Undertones Auburn or Warm Brown

Expressive Character Eyes

Creating expressive eyes is key to bringing animated characters to life. Character eyes serve as windows into their emotions and thoughts. They help viewers connect with the characters on screen. Learn to color and style character eyes for maximum expression and personality.

Styling For Animation

Eyes in animation require special attention to detail. Each element of the eye plays a unique role. Here’s what to consider:

  • Pupil Size: Indicates focus and mood.
  • Iris Color: Can reflect the character’s nature.
  • Eye Shape: Helps define the character’s age and distinct features.
  • Eye Highlights: Adds depth and sparkle for lifelike animation.

Use bright, contrasting colors for characters that need to stand out. Subtler shades work well for supporting roles that complement the lead.

Conveying Personality Through Eyes

Eyes tell a story without words. Coloring eyes to match the personality of a character is an art. Here’s how to use colors effectively:

Personality Trait Color Palette Effect
Bold, Confident Dark, Saturated Hues Draws attention, shows strength
Mysterious, Secretive Cool, Dark Shades Create intrigue, depth
Playful, Energetic Bright, Vivid Colors Injects life, shows enthusiasm
Kind, Gentle Soft, Warm Tones Welcomes viewers, radiates positivity

Select colors that align with the character’s core traits. Balance your palette to avoid overwhelming the viewer. Remember, eye colors should complement the character’s overall design.

The Role Of Shadows

The Role of Shadows brings to life the art of coloring eyes. Shadows create depth and make the eyes pop. Combat flat and uninspiring eye art with savvy shadow-use. Let’s dive in.

Deepening The Eye Sockets

Darker shades at the right spots transform a drawing. Start with a mid-tone over the entire lid. Next, apply a darker tone in the crease. This mimics natural shadows and adds depth. Be sure to blend well for a seamless transition.

Contrasting Eye Color

Contrast in eye coloring is key. Use shades opposite on the color wheel to make eyes stand out. For example, orange hues can make blue eyes more vibrant. Here are steps to achieve this:

  1. Identify the eye color.
  2. Pick a contrasting color from the wheel.
  3. Apply the contrasting color subtly around the eye.

Follow these guidelines to give life and realism to your eye illustrations.

Photo-realistic Eye Coloring

Coloring eyes in a photograph can transform a simple image into a stunning piece of art. When it comes to photo-realistic eye coloring, precise techniques ensure the end result is as lifelike as possible. Let’s dive into the process of creating eyes that truly pop with realism.

Replicating A Photograph

To start, choose a high-quality, clear reference photo. Zoom in on the eye area to notice the subtle colors and reflections. Your goal is to replicate these tiny details for a realistic effect.

  • Observe the eye’s base color.
  • Note the various shades within the iris.
  • Identify light reflections on the cornea.

Select a soft brush in your digital art software. Begin by applying the base color, then layer the additional shades. Use a fine-point brush to add the intricate patterns and the catchlights that bring the eye to life.

Fine-tuning With Layers

Working with layers affords flexibility in editing without affecting the underlying work.

  1. Create a new layer for each color change.
  2. Adjust the opacity to blend the colors naturally.
  3. Use layer masks to clean up any overspill.

Tweaks and adjustments make a big difference. Lower the visibility of the top layers to let the base show through. This mimics how light interacts with the eye.

Layer Type Purpose
Base Color Sets the overall tone
Shading Adds depth and dimension
Highlights Creates shine and wetness

Remember, patience is key. Take your time to perfect each layer, and your photo-realistic eye coloring will stand out with breathtaking detail.

Cultural Significance Of Eye Color

Our eyes tell stories older than words. Across the globe, eye color holds deep cultural significance. It shapes myths and captures the imagination. From tales of magic to symbols of power, eye color weaves a rich tapestry of cultural lore.

Symbolism In Different Societies

Different cultures see eye color through unique lenses. Here’s how some societies interpret these natural hues:

  • Blue eyes: Often linked with the sea and sky, they symbolize calm and wisdom.
  • Green eyes: Rare and mystical, they’re seen as a sign of luck and vitality.
  • Brown eyes: Earthy and reliable, they reflect strength and stability.
  • Hazel eyes: A mix of colors implies adaptability and spontaneity.

Eye Color Myths And Meanings

Myths tied to eye colors often reveal a society’s values. Let’s explore some beliefs:

Eye Color Myth Meaning
Blue Grants protection against evil Safety
Green Sign of a witch or magic-user Mystery
Brown Embodies the earth goddess Nurturing
Hazel Changeling or shapeshifter Versatility

Final Touches

The journey of coloring eyes isn’t complete without giving them the final touches. This phase is crucial as it brings out the vibrance and life in your artistic expression. With attention to detail and a dash of creativity, you’ll elevate a simple drawing to a captivating masterpiece. Let’s dive into the fine-tuning process.

Reviewing Your Work

After laying down the base colors and shadows, take a step back. Look at your art with fresh eyes. Does the color reflect the emotion you intended? Are the proportions accurate? Asking yourself these questions helps to critique your work objectively. If something looks off, it’s not too late to adjust. Your keen observation ensures the eyes you’ve colored not only look good but also hold a gaze.

Enhancements And Edits

The final stage is all about enhancing the realism or fantasy of the eyes. Use highlights to make them glisten. Employ blending techniques to smooth out hard edges. If digital, layers and filters are your friends. Traditional artists, on the other hand, might prefer fine brushes for detailed strokes. Don’t rush these edits; meticulous enhancements bring the eyes to life.

  • Check for dimension: Ensure the eyes have depth and don’t appear flat.
  • Adjust the color intensity: Brighten or darken hues where necessary to add contrast.
  • Refine edges: Keep the outlines sharp in realistic styles or softly blended for a dreamy look.
  • Test different lighting: Observe how light sources change the eye color and apply the effects.
How to Color Eyes

Credit: www.pinterest.com

Frequently Asked Questions Of How To Color Eyes

How Do You Color Your Eyes Traditional?

To traditionally color your eyes, choose colored contact lenses matching your desired shade. Ensure they are correctly fitted by an eye care professional to avoid discomfort or eye health issues. Always opt for high-quality, FDA-approved contacts for safety.

How Do You Color Your Eyes Digitally?

To color your eyes digitally, use photo editing software like Photoshop. Select the ‘Hue/Saturation’ tool, pick the eye area and adjust the hue to change the color. Ensure the edit looks natural by moderating the saturation.

How To Make Realistic Eyes?

Study real eyes to understand shape and color variations. Use shading and highlights for depth. Focus on iris detail and pupil sharpness. Add subtle veins and reflection for a lifelike appearance. Practice blending techniques for a natural finish.

How Do You Color Irises?

To color irises, select safe, FDA-approved colored contact lenses that match your desired shade. Ensure proper fitting by consulting an eye care professional. Follow lens care instructions to maintain eye health.

What Tools Do I Need To Color Eyes?

Eye coloring requires a set of pencils or paints suited for the medium you’re working on, along with high-quality brushes if you’re using liquid colors.

Can I Color Eyes Digitally?

Absolutely, digital platforms like Adobe Photoshop and Procreate offer advanced tools for realistic eye coloring in digital artwork.

Conclusion

Mastering the art of coloring eyes can truly bring your artwork to life. With practice and the tips we’ve shared, your skills will surely blossom. Remember, the right tools and techniques make all the difference. Embrace your creativity, and watch your drawings dazzle with realistic and vibrant eyes.

Happy coloring!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *